Author ORCID Identifier

Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation




Early Childhood, Special Education, and Counselor Education

First Advisor

Dr. Jennifer Grisham


The study is about virtual training and coaching to Indonesian parents of preschool-age children with social-communication delays to implement naturalistic intervention. These intercontinental coaching sessions were delivered asynchronously because of the time difference between the coach and the participants and internet bandwidth barrier in some rural areas in Indonesia. Multiple-baseline design across behaviors was utilized to determine the effect of asynchronous training and coaching program to teach three Indonesian parents three naturalistic strategies (i.e., modeling, mand-model, and time delay) during natural routines. Parent-child dyads video-recorded their interaction before and after intervention.

The intervention was started by learning the strategies, video-recorded the implementation, received performance-based feedback and reimplemented the strategy until reaching the criterion level in three consecutive sessions. The coach delivers feedback through chat, word documents, videos that was recorded on Zoom, enable the coach to embed parent’s performance to highlight their strengths and areas for growth. Parents can ask questions anytime using WhatsApp and messenger chat. The results indicate that the parents could learn the strategies and implement them with high fidelity. The effect of parents’ strategy implementation was observed in children’s increase of verbal responses and initiations. Social validity interviews and surveys indicate that parents found the intervention package to be socially valid.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)