Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation


Agriculture, Food and Environment


Plant and Soil Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Michael Barrett


In 2011, Poa annua L. (Poa) biotypes were collected from greens of two golf courses in Lexington, Kentucky: 1.) The Lexington Country Club (LCC) and 2.) The University Club (UC). The samples were collected based on exhibiting one of two appearances while on the same green: 1.) dark green, with few to no flower heads (dark biotype) or 2.) light green, with numerous flower heads (light biotype). Two PGRs, paclobutrazol and flurprimidol, and two herbicides, bispyribac-sodium and amicarbazone, were applied to the plants both in the field and the greenhouse. Quality ratings were recorded weekly in both the field and greenhouse and grass clippings were collected and measured weekly in the greenhouse. Flurprimidol controlled the dark biotypes and paclobutrazol controlled the light biotypes in the field in 2011. However, only location by treatment interactions were in 2012; flurprimidol, bispyribac-sodium, and amicarbazone controlled the biotypes from the LCC while paclobutrazol controlled the biotypes from UC. In the greenhouse study there was a significant three way interaction between color, location, and treatment for quality. PGRs controlled the light biotypes from LCC and the dark biotypes from UC. Herbicides controlled the light biotypes more than the dark, however, the light biotypes recovered after amicarbazone treatments. PGRs reduced clipping weights of the dark biotypes more than the light and herbicides reduced clipping weights of the light biotypes more than the dark. Both PGRs and herbicides reduced clipping weights of the Poa collected from the LCC more than UC. These results demonstrate both the potential for differential responses between Poa biotypes to PGRs and herbicides and that these differences, like all things about Poa, may be complex. A laboratory experiment was also designed to examine the absorption and potential metabolism of 14C-labeled flurprimidol in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera (L.)), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.)), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis (L.)), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne (L.)), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea (Schreb.)), and zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica (Steud.)) and light and dark Poa biotypes collected from golf greens. Flurprimidol absorption and translocation was greater for warm season grasses than cool season grasses. Only parent flurprimidol was detected in all turf species.

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