Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation




Plant and Soil Science

First Advisor

Dr. Jan A. Smalle


The plant hormone cytokinin plays essential roles in many aspects of growth and development. The cytokinin signal is transmitted by a multistep phosphorelay to the members of two functionally antagonistic classes of Arabidopsis response regulators (ARRs): the type-B ARRs (response activators) and type-A ARRs (negative-feedback regulators). Previous studies have shown that mutations in AXR1, encoding a subunit of the E1 enzyme in the related to ubiquitin (RUB) modification pathway, leads to decreased cytokinin sensitivity. This research shows that the cytokinin resistance of axr1 seedlings is suppressed by loss-of-function of type-A ARRs and that the cytokinin resistance caused by ectopic expression of ARR5, a type-A ARR family member, is enhanced in axr1 background. Based on the established role of the RUB pathway in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, these data suggested that AXR1 promotes the cytokinin response by facilitating type-A ARR degradation. Indeed, both genetic (axr1 mutants) and chemical (MLN4924) suppression of RUB E1 increased ARR5 stability, suggesting that the ubiquitin ligase that promotes ARR5 proteolysis requires RUB modification for optimal activity. In addition, ARR1, a type-B ARR family member, also accumulated in the axr1 mutant background, suggesting that AXR1 regulates primary cytokinin signaling at multiple levels.

Included in

Plant Biology Commons