Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) rose to prominence in the 1990s as a sensitive approach to high contrast imaging. Following the discovery of manganese conductance through calcium-permeable channels, MEMRI applications expanded to include functional imaging in the central nervous system (CNS) and other body systems. MEMRI has since been employed in the investigation of physiology in many animal models and in humans. Here, we review historical perspectives that follow the evolution of applied MRI research into MEMRI with particular focus on its potential toxicity. Furthermore, we discuss the more current in vivo investigative uses of MEMRI in CNS investigations and the brief but decorated clinical usage of chelated manganese compound mangafodipir in humans.

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Published in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, v. 10, 403, p. 1-22.

© 2018 Cloyd, Koren and Abisambra.

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This work was supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH)/NINDS award 1R01NS091329-01A1, U.S. Department of Defense award AZ140097, NIH/NIMH L32 MD009205-01, NIH/NCATS 5UL1TR000117-04 and NIH/NIGMS 5P30GM110787-Pilot.