Author ORCID Identifier

Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation




Pharmaceutical Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Steven Van Lanen


A-102395 is a member of the capuramycin family of antibiotics which was isolated from the culture broth of Amycolatopsis sp. SANK 60206. A-102339 is structurally classified as a nucleoside antibiotic, which like all members of the capuramycin family, inhibits bacterial MraY (translocase I) with IC50 of 11 nM which is the lowest among the capuramycin family. A semisynthetic derivative of capuramycin is currently in clinical trials as an antituberculosis antibiotic, suggesting high potential for using A-102395 as a starting point for new antibiotic discovery. In contrast to other capuramycins, A-102395 has a unique arylamine-containing polyamide side chain. The biosynthetic gene cluster of A-102395 was previously identified and includes 35 putative open reading frames responsible for biosynthesis and resistance. Presently, there are no reports focused on the biosynthesis of this polyamide chain. Here we present the functional assignment and biochemical characterization of seven proteins, Cpr33-38 and Cpr12, that initiate the biosynthesis of the polyamide.

Functional characterization of Cpr38, which has sequence similarity to the gene products encoded by pabA and pabB from E. coli, revealed that it functions as a 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) synthase catalyzing a two-step reaction involving amidohydrolysis of L-Gln with ammonia channeled and incorporated into chorismic acid to generate ADC. Cpr12, encoded by a gene that was originally proposed to be outside the gene cluster and sharing similarity to proteins annotated as ADC lyase, was revealed to catalyze the elimination of pyruvate to form PABA.

Cpr36 is demonstrated to function as a free-standingpeptidyl carrier protein (PCP), which is activated to form holo-protein from the apo-form. Cpr37, which belongs to the adenylation domain protein in the nonribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS), subsequently activates PABA and loads it to holo-Cpr36 Two proteins Cpr34 and Cpr35 work in concert to catalyze decarboxylative condensation between a thioester linked PABA and malonyl-S-acyl carrier protein (ACP) during aromatic polyketide biosynthesis catalyzed by type II polyketide synthases.

Following condensation, Cpr33 acts as 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase that catalyzes reduction to the β-hydroxythioester intermediate. In this scenario, hydride is predicted to be added to the re face to generate the S configuration resulting in the same stereochemical outcome as other 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase (FabG) from bacterial type II fatty acid synthases.These findings are critical advancement for interrogating the biosynthesis of the unusual chemical components of the family of antibiotics of capuramycin.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)