Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation




Pharmaceutical Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Steven Van Lanen


Several lipopeptidyl nucleoside antibiotics that inhibit bacterial translocase I (MraY) involved in peptidoglycan cell wall biosynthesis contain an aminoribosyl moiety, an unusual sugar appendage in natural products. A-90289 and muraminomicin are the two representative antibiotics that belong to this family. Bioinformatic analysis of the biosynthetic A-90289 gene clusters revealed that five enzymes are likely involved in the assembly and attachment of the aminoribosyl unit. These enzymes of A-90289 are functionally assigned by in vitro characterization. The results reveal a unique ribosylation pathway that highlighted by uridine-5′-monophosphate as the source of the sugar, a phosphorylase strategy to generate a sugar-1-phosphate, and a primary amine-requiring nucleotidylyltransferase that generates the NDP-sugar donor. Muraminomicin, which has a structure similar to A-90289, holds the distinction in that both ribose units are 2-deoxy sugars. The biosynthetic gene cluster of muraminomicin has been identified, cloned and sequenced, and bioinformatic analysis revealed a minimum of 24 open reading frames putatively involved in the biosynthesis, resistance, and regulation of muraminomicin. Similar to the A-90289 pathway, fives enzymes are still likely involved in the assembly of the 2,5-dideoxy-5-aminoribose saccharide unit, and two are now functionally assigned and characterized: Mra20, a 5′-amino-2′,5′-dideoxyuridine phosphorylase and Mra23, a UTP:5-amino-2,5-dideoxy-α-D-ribose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. The cumulative results are consistent with the incorporation of the ribosyl appendage of muraminomicin via the archetypical sugar biosynthetic pathway that parallels A-90289 biosynthesis