Author ORCID Identifier

Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Document Type

Master's Thesis




Medical Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Greg A. Gerhardt


Objective: Novel drug 419 was examined to see the effect it has in vivo mice and rats on alcohol consumption, nicotine locomotor sensitization, and conditioned place preference (CPP) models regarding behavioral tests on dopamine transporter activity.

Methods: Mice and rats were used to see how they react to the drug 419 and control vehicle, in each of the models. The animals were assessed to pre- and post- drug administration of novel drug 419. We examined each model to see the association between how drug 419 will help with treating drug abuse.

Results: We found that in alcohol consumption model the mice did not react well to drug 419 and had no significant results. In the nicotine locomotor sensitization, we found that drug 419 has potential in reversing the nicotine induced locomotor activity and could help reduce nicotine abusive disorder. The CPP model did not have any significant results in either rat group. We found that drug 419 at the dose we administered does not seem to have a significant effect in the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways and may not facilitate a role in treating drug abuse.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that drug 419 may play a role in only nicotine locomotor sensitization due to the reversal of nicotine induce LMA that was observed. The use of drug 419 in alcohol consumption and CPP models indicated that it is not effective as it did not alter the behavior in mice and rats. The need for understanding the pharmacological and pharmacokinetics of drug 419 is critical to fully be implemented in future behavioral tests.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Funding Information

This research was sponsored by Naprogenix Inc. UK-ASTECC 145 Graham Avenue Lexington, KY 40506-0286 in 2019.

Grant Number: 3R44AA025804-02S1

Project Title: Mutant transgenic plant cells as a novel source of drugs