Deficiency or excess exposure to manganese (Mn), an essential mineral, may have potentially adverse health effects. The kidneys are a major organ of Mn site-specific toxicity because of their unique role in filtration, metabolism, and excretion of xenobiotics. We hypothesized that Mn concentrations were associated with poorer blood pressure (BP) and kidney parameters such as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1931 healthy U.S. adolescents aged 12–19 years participating in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles 2013–2014, 2015–2016, and 2017–2018. Blood and urine Mn concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Systolic and diastolic BP were calculated as the average of available readings. eGFR was calculated from serum creatinine using the Bedside Schwartz equation. We performed multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, race/ethnicity, and poverty income ratio. We observed null relationships between blood Mn concentrations with eGFR, ACR, BUN, and BP. In a subset of 691 participants, we observed that a 10-fold increase in urine Mn was associated with a 16.4 mL/min higher eGFR (95% Confidence Interval: 11.1, 21.7). These exploratory findings should be interpreted cautiously and warrant investigation in longitudinal studies.

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Published in Children, v. 8, issue 10, 846.

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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This publication was partially supported by funding from NIH/NIEHS: R00ES027508, T32HL007824, ES02644601A1, ES016531, and P30ES026529.

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Publicly available datasets were analyzed in this study. The data can be found here: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/ (accessed on 1 July 2021).

The following are available online at https://www.mdpi.com/article/10.3390/children8100846/s1, Table S1: Comparison of adjusted effect estimates of blood Mn (log10 µg/L) concentrations with eGFR using four serum-creatinine based eGFR formulae, and stratified by sex or race/ethnicity, Table S2: Adjusted associations of urine Mn (log10 µg Mn/g creatinine) and eGFR using survey weighted linear regression, stratified by sex or race/ethnicity. Urine Mn levels were creatinine-adjusted in all models.

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