The factors associated with chronic opioid therapy (COT) in patients with HIV is understudied. Using Medicaid data (2002-2009), this retrospective cohort study examines COT in beneficiaries with HIV who initiated standard combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART). We used generalized estimating equations on logistic regression models with backward selection to identify significant predictors of COT initiation. COT was initiated among 1014 out of 9615 beneficiaries with HIV (male: 10.4%; female: 10.7%). Those with older age, any malignancy, Hepatitis C infection, back pain, arthritis, neuropathy pain, substance use disorder, polypharmacy, (use of) benzodiazepines, gabapentinoids, antidepressants, and prior opioid therapies were positively associated with COT. In sex-stratified analyses, multiple predictors were shared between male and female beneficiaries; however, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver disease, any malignancy, and antipsychotic therapy were unique to female beneficiaries. Comorbidities and polypharmacy were important predictors of COT in Medicaid beneficiaries with HIV who initiated cART.

Document Type


Publication Date


Notes/Citation Information

Published in Scientific Reports, v. 11, issue 1, article no. 15503.

© The Author(s) 2021

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


Related Content

The data that support the findings of this study are available from Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available.

41598_2021_94690_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (206 kB)
Supplementary information