Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation




Early Childhood, Special Education, and Rehabilitation Counseling

First Advisor

Dr. Brian A. Bottge

Second Advisor

Dr. Margaret E. Bausch


The achievement gap in mathematics education continues to be a concern in the United States. Students with disabilities (SWD) are often excluded from the general education curriculum or the least restrictive environment due to their low performance in mathematics and disability-related deficits. Legislative and professional reports have addressed the needs of SWD by promoting evidence-based math interventions using instructional technology. However, the focus of many math interventions with instructional technology has been limited to basic facts instruction or drill-and-practice routines. In this study, I developed a curriculum-based technology tool called Anchored Instruction with Technology Applications (AITA) based on pedagogical concepts of Enhanced Anchored Instruction (EAI). For more than a decade, research has shown EAI to be effective in improving the math achievement of SWD. EAI is based on situated cognition learning theory and combines multimedia-based instruction with hands-on problems in real world contexts. AITA integrates technology applications such as 3D printers with EAI curriculum for improving problem-solving skills of SWD. The study examined differential effects of AITA in resource rooms and inclusive classrooms. Results showed significant improvement in favor of AITA for SWD in both problem-solving and computation performance.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)