Year of Publication

2015

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

College

Pharmacy

Department

Pharmaceutical Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Steven G Van Lanen

Abstract

Several nucleoside natural product antibiotics from Streptomyces sp. and actinomycetes have recently been shown to target bacterial peptidoglycan cell wall biosynthesis by inhibiting the bacterial translocase I (MraY). The biosynthetic gene clusters for A-90289, liposidomycins and caprazamycins revealed a protein with sequence similarity to proteins annotated as α-KG:taurine dioxygenases (TauD). This enzyme (LipL) is a mononuclear, non-heme, Fe(II) dependent α-keto glutarate (α-KG) :uridine monophosphate (UMP) dioxygenase responsible for the net dephosphorylation and two electron oxidation of UMP to uridine-5’-aldehyde. The postulated reaction coordinates involving the activation of the C-5’ center in UMP and the corresponding formation of uridine-5’-aldehyde are modeled on extensive spectroscopic and structural characterizations of TauD. In this dissertation, the postulated radical mechanism for LipL involving the formation of an unstable hydroxylated intermediate is investigated via the characterization of a key product obtained from the reaction of LipL (and its homolog Cpr19) with a synthetically modified surrogate substrate where the bridging phosphoester oxygen in UMP is replaced with a 5’ C-P bond. We further validate our hypothesis by analyzing the reactions of both LipL and Cpr19 with specifically 2H1 – labeled UMP substrate and confirming the expected products via mass spectrometry. In addition, we explore substrate promiscuity of the enzymes and utilize a set of site specific mutants of Cpr19 as means of gaining better insight into the active site residues. Predictive models for Cpr19 and LipL structures are developed by the combination of experimental results and chemical logic.

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