Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation




STEM Education

First Advisor

Dr. Margaret J. Mohr-Schroeder

Second Advisor

Dr. Carl W. Lee


The Sources of Middle School Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale (Usher & Pajares, 2009) was adapted for use in this study investigating the impact that gender, race, sexual orientation, hometown location (rural, suburban, or urban), high school GPA, college GPA and letter grade of a mathematics course in the previous semester had on the four sources of mathematical self-efficacy of 102 college freshmen attending three small, private, liberal arts institutions. Even though this study found no interaction effects between the student characteristics, the four sources of mathematical self-efficacy, or the three subcategories of the vicarious experience construct, this study did find statistically significant results for several independent variables: gender, hometown environment, and the letter grade received in the mathematics course the preceding semester at the Bonferroni correction rate of .025. Additionally, small p-values for race and hometown environments warrant further investigation with a larger sample size.