This study investigated group differences in the recalls of stories by children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison peers. Further, the study examined whether stimulant medication improved the story recall of children with ADHD relative to a placebo condition. Children were asked to recall both televised and audio taped stories. Free recall protocols were assessed for what information was recalled as a function of story structure features (i.e. status on or off the causal chain and event importance) and were rated for overall coherence. Relative to comparison peers, children with ADHD showed less influence of story structure features on recall, and produced less coherent recall of the audio taped stories. Medication had only limited effects on the story recall of children with ADHD. Specifically, medication did not increase these children’s sensitivity to events central to the stories and had no effect on the coherence of children’s recalls. The implications of the results for guiding future academic interventions are discussed.

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