Background: Extending previous research, we applied latent profile analysis in a sample of adults with a history of recurrent depression to identify subgroups with distinct response profiles on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and understand how these relate to psychological functioning. Method: The sample was randomly divided into two subsamples to first examine the optimal number of latent profiles (test sample; n = 343) and then validate the identified solution (validation sample; n = 340). Results: In both test and validation samples, a four-profile solution was revealed where two profiles mapped broadly onto those previously identified in nonclinical samples: “high mindfulness” and “nonjudgmentally aware.” Two additional subgroups, “moderate mindfulness” and “very low mindfulness,” were observed. “High mindfulness” was associated with the most adaptive psychological functioning and “very low mindfulness” with the least adaptive. Conclusions: In most people with recurrent depression, mindfulness skills are expressed evenly across different domains. However, in a small minority a meaningful and replicable uneven profile indicating nonjudgmental awareness is observable. Current findings require replication and future research should examine the extent to which profiles change from periods of wellness to illness in people with recurrent depression and how profiles are influenced by exposure to mindfulness-based intervention.

Document Type


Publication Date


Notes/Citation Information

OnlineFirst article to be published in Assessment.

© The Author(s) 2017

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


Funding Information

The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This study was supported by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and Sussex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust in a joint Doctoral Training Scholarship awarded to the first author (grant ES/J500173/1). Data for this publication were from the PREVENT (Kuyken et al., 2015) and SWAD (J. M. G. Williams et al., 2014) research trials. PREVENT was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Health Technology Assessment (HTA) program, and NIHR Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care South West Peninsula (project 08/56/01). SWAD was funded by a Wellcome Trust Grant (grant GR067797).

Related Content

Supplementary material is available for this article online.

Supplementary_Materials_Table_S1.pdf (26 kB)
Supplementary Material