BACKGROUND: Activation of intravesical protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4) leads to release of urothelial macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). MIF then binds to urothelial MIF receptors to release urothelial high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and elicit bladder hyperalgesia. Since MIF binds to multiple receptors, we investigated the contribution of individual urothelial MIF receptors to PAR4-induced HMGB1 release in vivo and in vitro and bladder pain in vivo.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the effect of intravesical pre-treatment with individual MIF or MIF receptor (CD74, CXCR4, CXCR2) antagonists on PAR4-induced HMGB1 release in vivo (female C57/BL6 mice) and in vitro (primary human urothelial cells) and on PAR4-induced bladder hyperalgesia in vivo (mice). In mice, PAR4 induced HMGB1 release and bladder hyperalgesia through activation of intravesical MIF receptors, CD74 and CXCR4. CXCR2 was not involved in these effects. In primary urothelial cells, PAR4-induced HMGB1 release through activation of CD74 receptors. Micturition parameters in mice were not changed by any of the treatments.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Urothelial MIF receptors CD74 and CXCR4 mediate bladder pain through release of urothelial HMGB1. This mechanism may set up persistent pain loops in the bladder and warrants further investigation. Urothelial CD74 and CXCR4 may provide novel targets for interrupting bladder pain.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
PLV (DK121695) RB (AR049610) National Institutes of Health
Ye, Shaojing; Ma, Fei; Mahmood, Dlovan F. D.; Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L.; Menard, Raymond E.; Hunt, David E.; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; and Vera, Pedro L., "Intravesical CD74 and CXCR4, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Receptors, Mediate Bladder Pain" (2021). Physiology Faculty Publications. 177.
S1 Table. Awake micturition parameters. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0255975.s001
journal.pone.0255975.s002.tif (6328 kB)
S1 Fig. Bladder pPCR: TNF-α, IL-1β. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0255975.s002
journal.pone.0255975.s003.tif (6328 kB)
S2 Fig. Bladder protein: TNF-α, IL-1β. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0255975.s003
journal.pone.0255975.s004.xlsx (55 kB)
S1 Dataset. Original datasets. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0255975.s004