Drug abuse and addiction have significantly increased over the last few decades; specifically, opioid abuse and dependence have increased to epidemic proportions. This increased use of drugs includes women of childbearing age and those who are pregnant. Drug abuse during pregnancy is a serious health risk for both mother and newborn infant. Infants exposed to maternal drugs in fetal life develop signs of drug withdrawal during early neonatal life. This group of withdrawal signs is known as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Although NAS is not a fatal condition, it results in significant illness and prolonged hospitalization.

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This article was published by StatPearls Publishing LLC. and is available online at https://www.statpearls.com/kb/viewarticle/26972 and at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519061/.

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