Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation


Fine Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Michael Hudson

Second Advisor

Dr. David Sogin


The purpose of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in secondary choral music teachers’ understandings and attitudes toward sex-specific vocal change and whether these differences vary by virtue of years of teaching experience. Participants (N = 405) were secondary choral music educators and current members on the National Association for Music Education who were surveyed using a researcher-designed attitudinal questionnaire. The survey instrument consisted of 20 questions related to teacher attitude towards sex-specific vocal change. Responses were recorded in using a 7-point Likert-type scale and included two anecdotal responses. Paired-samples t-tests were conducted and revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between choral director attitudes in regards to male adolescent vocal change and female adolescent vocal change: t (404)= 18.25, p < 0.01. There was not a statistically significant difference for years of experience.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)