Author ORCID Identifier

Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation


Fine Arts



First Advisor

Dr. David Sogin

Second Advisor

Dr. Martina Vasil


The purpose of this study was to investigate song teaching approaches and their effect on the singing accuracy of third grade elementary students using an original song with no repeated phrases. Students (N = 318) and teachers (N = 22) were from a large school district in the Western United States with a diverse demographic population.

Three song teaching approaches were investigated: phrase-by-phrase, holistic, and combination. An original composed song with the phrase structure that does not include a repeated phrase was tested. Intact third grade classes were randomly selected from each of the 22 schools and teachers were randomly assigned a song teaching approach. The participants were tested individually and recorded for post hoc analysis. The analysis also included two levels of data: student (level I) and teacher (level II). The program Mplus (Version 8.4) was used to conduct all multilevel ordinal logistic regressions tested for accuracy differences between the three treatment conditions.

Results were not statistically significant but did indicate that the phrase-by-phrase approached used is more likely to produce higher singing accuracy scores in relation to text, rhythm, melody, and pitch. Suggestions for future research include conducting the same study with a larger sample size, with more time spent on fidelity training of the teachers, and more time spent teaching the song.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)