Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation




Mining Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Daniel Tao


Froth flotation is a widely used, cost effective particle separation process. However, its high performance is limited to a narrow particle size range, e.g., between 50 µm and 600 µm for coal and between 10 µm and 100 µm for minerals. Outside this range, the efficiency of froth flotation decreases significantly, especially for difficult-to-float particles of weak hydrophobicity (e.g., oxidized coal).

Nanobubbles integrated into a specially designed column flotation expanded the particle size range for efficient froth flotation as a result of increased probabilities of particle- bubble collision and attachment and reduced probability of detachment.

The major advantages of nanobubble enhanced flotation include lower collector and frother dosages since nanobubbles that are mostly smaller than 1 µm can be formed selectively on hydrophobic coal particles from dissolved air in coal slurry. Nanobubbles act as a secondary collector on particle surfaces, thereby resulting in considerably lower operating costs.

A systematic parametric investigation of the proposed technology was performed to understand the effects of process variables on separation performance with a typical coal sample using a specially designed flotation column and three 10-liters conventional flotation cells. Results indicate that the combustible recovery of a -150 µm coal increased by 5-50% in the presence of nanobubbles, depending on process operating conditions. Nanobubbles also significantly improved process separation efficiency and increased the flotation rate constant by more than 40%.

Theoretical evaluation of the innovative flotation technology was employed using specially designed apparatus to study the nanobubbles stability and the roles of nanobubbles on particle-bubble interactions, froth stability, and surface area flux. In addition, a detailed technical performance and economic evaluation was performed.