Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Master of Science in Mining Engineering (MSMIE)

Document Type

Master's Thesis




Mining Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Joseph Sottile


Arc flash is one of the two primary hazards encountered by workers near electrical equipment. Most applications where arc flash may be encountered are alternating current (AC) electrical systems. However, direct current (DC) electrical systems are becoming increasingly prevalent with industries implementing more renewable energy sources and energy storage devices. Little research has been performed with respect to arc flash hazards posed by DC electrical systems, particularly energy storage devices. Furthermore, current standards for performing arc flash calculations do not provide sufficient guidance when working in DC applications. IEEE 1584-2002 does not provide recommendations for DC electrical systems. NFPA 70E provides recommendations based on conservative theoretical models, which may result in excessive personal protective equipment (PPE). Arc flash calculations seek to quantify incident energy, which quantifies the amount of thermal energy that a worker may be exposed to at some working distance. This thesis assesses arc flash hazards within a substation backup battery system. In addition, empirical data collected via a series of tests utilizing retired station batteries is presented. Lastly, a predictive model for determining incident energy is proposed, based on collected data.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Funding Information

Central Appalachian Regional Education and Research Center (CARERC)

American Electric Power (AEP)