Abstract

Using primary melanocytes and HEK293 cells, we found that cAMP signaling accelerates repair of bi- and mono-functional platinum-induced DNA damage. Elevating cAMP signaling either by the agonistic MC1R ligand melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) or by pharmacologic cAMP induction by forskolin enhanced clearance of intrastrand cisplatin-adducts in melanocytes or MC1R-transfected HEK293 cells. MC1R antagonists human beta-defensin 3 and agouti signaling protein blocked MSH- but not forskolin-mediated enhancement of platinum-induced DNA damage. cAMP-enhanced repair of cisplatin-induced DNA damage was dependent on PKA-mediated phosphorylation of ATR on S435 which promoted ATR’s interaction with the key NER factor xeroderma pigmentosum A (XPA) and facilitated recruitment of an XPA-ATR-pS435 complex to sites of cisplatin DNA damage. Moreover, we developed an oligonucleotide retrieval immunoprecipitation (ORiP) assay using a novel platinated-DNA substrate to establish kinetics of ATR-pS435 and XPA’s associations with cisplatin-damaged DNA. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable ATR-S435A construct or deletion of A kinase-anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) impeded platinum adduct clearance and prevented cAMP-mediated enhancement of ATR and XPA’s associations with cisplatin-damaged DNA, indicating that ATR phosphorylation at S435 is necessary for cAMP-enhanced repair of platinum-induced damage and protection against cisplatin-induced mutagenesis. These data implicate cAMP signaling as a critical regulator of genomic stability against platinum-induced mutagenesis.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

9-15-2017

Notes/Citation Information

Published in Scientific Reports, v. 7, article no. 11708, p. 1-14.

© The Author(s) 2017

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-12056-5

Funding Information

This work was supported by the following NIH grants: R01 CA131075, P30 CA177558.

Related Content

Supplementary information accompanies this paper at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-12056-5.

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Supplementary Data

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