Author ORCID Identifier

Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation


Business and Economics



First Advisor

Dr. Walter J. Ferrier


Non-prototypical CEOs are those that process different demographic characteristics from a target reference group. In the US, a non-prototypical CEO is both white and male. While the negative responses to non-prototypical leaders based on race and gender have been well documented, we know less on what these leaders do that may influence biased evaluations. In this dissertation I took an impression management view to examine analysts’ evaluative bias (AEB) on prototypical and non-prototypical CEOs hiding linguistic behaviors and competitive aggressiveness. Specifically, I examined hiding linguistic behaviors on quarterly conference calls and two attributes of competitive repertoire will be researched. Drawing from leadership categorization theory, competitive dynamics: competitive volume and competitive complexity.

Using a matched sample of Fortune 500 CEOs from 2006-2012 of quarterly conference calls and RavenPack action data I found support for difference in who exhibits hiding linguistic behavior and how non-prototypical CEOs are evaluated differently based on their competitive aggressive. This research seeks to take an impression management look at how non-prototypical leaders are evaluated and narrow the gap between how CEOs operate versus what they say to third party evaluators.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)