A complex system of growth inhibitors was observed in the green algae (Volvocaceae). Inhibitors were found in the culture filtrates of some genera which limit their own growth (autoinhibitors) while others in the family produce substances which check the growth of other genera (heteroinhibitors). These inhibitors were destroyed by autoclaving. It was decided that Pandorina morum, which produced the strongest inhibitor and Volvox tertius, the most sensitive to the inhibitor would make an excellent model system for a study of the chemical and physical properties of these naturally occurring algicides. The algicide could be removed from actively growing cultures about the 12th day after inoculation and maximum inhibition was recorded for the next 18 days. The substance could be diluted several times with the retention of at least partial activity. The inhibitor was relatively stable to high temperatures, moved slowly through a dialysis membrane and possessed anti-bacterial properties in that it inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. The material was relatively stable when exposed to acid, although exposure to a pH of 2.0 for 30 minutes did destroy most of the activity. The substance was soluble in benzene and chloroform. All attempts to degrade or destroy the inhibitor with the common proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin and pronase) proved unsuccessful, suggesting the substance is not proteinaceous in nature. In experiments with G-25 and G-50 Sephadex, the inhibitor was retained on the column, indicating a molecular weight of less than 5000. The Clark type oxygen electrode revealed that the inhibitor greatly reduced photosynthetic rates in Volvox. A 65% reduction in the rate of photosynthesis was observed after several minutes exposure to medium in which Pandorina morum had been growing. Respiration rates were apparently unaffected.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
The work on which this report is based was supported in part by funds provided by the Office of Water Resources Research, United States Department of the Interior, as authorized under the Water Resources Research Act of 1964.
Harris, Denny O. and Parekh, Manhar C., "A Study of Water-Soluble Inhibitory Compounds (Algicides) Produced by Fresh-Water Algae" (1973). KWRRI Research Reports. 126.