This report is a discussion of the bridge approach settlement or movement problem that is so prevalent in the United States. An explanation and/or description is given of the causes of these movements as described in the literature. A discussion concerning the cost to highway agencies is also given. A review and discussion of current practices in the country is given . This includes construction practices on approach embankment foundations, the approach embankment itself, various types of approach slabs, types of abutments and end bents, and drainage around approach embankments and bridge ends. A survey of all 50 states was conducted to determine the problems and practices in those states. Those results are summarized in this report. Additionally, a survey was conducted of all 12 highway districts in Kentucky to determine the differences in practice among those districts. Those results are given in Appendix B. Finally, conclusions and recommendations on the apparent best practices are discussed.

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The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the University of Kentucky, the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, nor the Federal Highway Administration. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. The inclusion of manufacturer names or trade names are for identification purposes only and are not to be considered as endorsements.