Researcher ORCID Identifier

Steve Martin



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The Patriot 7.5-minute quadrangle is located in Boone, Gallatin, and Grant Counties of northern Kentucky in the Outer Bluegrass physiographic province (McFarlan, 1943). Broad to narrow ridges, steep hillsides, and the Ohio River Valley characterize the topography of the quadrangle. The Ohio River has been made navigable by a series of high-level dams, and the Markland Locks and Dam controls the river level in this area (Ray, 1974). The bedrock geology, originally mapped by Swadley (1969), consists, from oldest to youngest, of the Point Pleasant Formation, the Kope Formation, the Fairview Formation, the Bellevue Tongue of the Grant Lake Limestone, and the Bullfork Formation. The Point Pleasant Formation is approximately 50 to 90 percent limestone and the remainder is shale; it is more than 55 ft thick and occurs along the lower hillsides near the Ohio River and tributary streams. The Kope Formation consists of approximately 80 percent shale and 20 percent limestone, is 190 to 235 ft thick, and is exposed along stream valleys and hillsides. The Fairview Formation is interbedded limestone (50 percent) and shale (50 percent), 105 to 115 ft thick, and occurs as a resistant unit on ridgetops. The Bellevue Tongue of the Grant Lake Limestone consists of rubbly-weathering limestone 3 to 5 ft thick on ridgetops. The Bullfork Formation is interbedded limestone (approximately 50 percent) and shale (50 percent), more than 45 ft thick, and occurs as thin caps on higher ridges in the quadrangle (Swadley 1969a). All formations are fossiliferous.

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Spatial Coverage

Patriot 7.5-minute Quadrangle, Boone County, Gallatin County, Grant County


Field mapping was completed by Max Hammond, Antonia Bottoms, and Steve Martin from July 2017 to June 2018. The authors thank Meg Smath and William Andrews for reviews. Cartography is by Emily Morris.

Funding Information

This map was generated using new field mapping along with compilation of unreleased and previously published data, and was funded in part by the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Cooperative Mapping Program under the STATEMAP program authorized by the National Geologic Mapping Act of 1992, Grant No. G17AC00255, and by the Kentucky Geological Survey.



Surficial Geologic Map of the Patriot 7.5-Minute Quadrangle, Kentucky

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