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Grasslands are mainly used for livestock production in developing countries although they have been facing contradictory pressures, i.e., increased demand for natural resources and animal products to cope with rising human populations. On the other, there is a need to preserve the environment and ecosystem. This paper reviewed the causes of grassland changes, the economic and social perspective of changing grasslands with more emphasis on dry lands. Different indicators were used to assess the economic (livestock production, wildlife and tourism, crop production, ecosystem services) and social (traditional institutions, mobility, land tenure and grazing systems) perspectives of changing grassland. The major causes of grassland change/degradation are natural and human induced factors. Compared to the past, there is an increased market orientation of the communities and increased livelihood diversification. A decline in livestock productivity and mobility, emergence of different wealth classes, weakening of the traditional institutions and shifts from communal to individual landholdings are some of the changes observed. The negative economic and social perspectives regarding mobile livestock production are changing drastically. In the conclusion part, potential research activities are outlined.

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Changing Grassland Scenario in Developing Countries--Economical and Social Perspective

Grasslands are mainly used for livestock production in developing countries although they have been facing contradictory pressures, i.e., increased demand for natural resources and animal products to cope with rising human populations. On the other, there is a need to preserve the environment and ecosystem. This paper reviewed the causes of grassland changes, the economic and social perspective of changing grasslands with more emphasis on dry lands. Different indicators were used to assess the economic (livestock production, wildlife and tourism, crop production, ecosystem services) and social (traditional institutions, mobility, land tenure and grazing systems) perspectives of changing grassland. The major causes of grassland change/degradation are natural and human induced factors. Compared to the past, there is an increased market orientation of the communities and increased livelihood diversification. A decline in livestock productivity and mobility, emergence of different wealth classes, weakening of the traditional institutions and shifts from communal to individual landholdings are some of the changes observed. The negative economic and social perspectives regarding mobile livestock production are changing drastically. In the conclusion part, potential research activities are outlined.