Track 1-06

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Bird strike is recognised throughout the civil and military aviation industries as a significant cost with more than $US 2 billion/year attributed to this problem globally. To manage this risk the aviation industries have in the past adopted many practices to frighten wildlife from airports rather than reducing the attractiveness of the area by grass habitat management. There has been little proven research on ground cover species evaluation using fungal endophyte to reduce wildlife. Our research has shown that the adoption of a specialist Neotyphodium fungal endophyte (strain AR601) placed in a turf type tall fescue cv. Jackal (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), is reducing bird numbers and strike rates on the test airfields under study. In the recreational industry, large birds such as Canada geese (Branta canadensis), which forage on tender new shoots and stems, can cause severe damage to turf with the added issue of faecal contamination and associated heath issues. The inoculation of another specialist endophyte (strain AR95) into a turf type ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cv. Colosseum offers another tool to reduce this problem. This paper reviews the results from trials of these selected turf type grasses containing the unique fungal endophytes and shows effects on herbivorous, insectivorous and omnivorous birds that visit airfields and surrounding parklands for foraging. Specialty endophyte grasses may also have a place in the viticulture and horticulture industries to reduce the use of insecticides. Extracts and mulches offer a new opportunity to use grass endophyte associations.

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AvanexTM Unique Endophyte Technology--Bird Deterrent Endophytic Grass for Amenity Turf and Airports

Bird strike is recognised throughout the civil and military aviation industries as a significant cost with more than $US 2 billion/year attributed to this problem globally. To manage this risk the aviation industries have in the past adopted many practices to frighten wildlife from airports rather than reducing the attractiveness of the area by grass habitat management. There has been little proven research on ground cover species evaluation using fungal endophyte to reduce wildlife. Our research has shown that the adoption of a specialist Neotyphodium fungal endophyte (strain AR601) placed in a turf type tall fescue cv. Jackal (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), is reducing bird numbers and strike rates on the test airfields under study. In the recreational industry, large birds such as Canada geese (Branta canadensis), which forage on tender new shoots and stems, can cause severe damage to turf with the added issue of faecal contamination and associated heath issues. The inoculation of another specialist endophyte (strain AR95) into a turf type ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cv. Colosseum offers another tool to reduce this problem. This paper reviews the results from trials of these selected turf type grasses containing the unique fungal endophytes and shows effects on herbivorous, insectivorous and omnivorous birds that visit airfields and surrounding parklands for foraging. Specialty endophyte grasses may also have a place in the viticulture and horticulture industries to reduce the use of insecticides. Extracts and mulches offer a new opportunity to use grass endophyte associations.