Opium poppies grow wild worldwide, and testing for morphine is now highly sensitive. Currently, many authorities worldwide do not pursue urinary morphine concentrations of less than 100 ng /ml. This is because such low urinary morphine concentrations are likely to be environmental morphine identifications (EMIs) and are also unlikely to be associated with pharmacological responses.
This study was supported by the following Horsemen’s Benevolent and Protective Associations: Alabama; Arizona; Arkansas; Canada; Charles Town, West Virginia; Florida; Kentucky; Iowa; Louisiana; Michigan; Minnesota; National; Nebraska; Ohio; Oklahoma; Ontario, Canada; Oregon; Pennsylvania; Tampa Bay Downs; Texas; Washington State; and West Virginia.
Camargo, Fernanda; Lehner, A. F.; Karpiesiuk, W.; Stirling, Kent; Kavanagh, Pierce V.; Brennan, Noel; Dowling, Mark; and Tobin, Thomas, "Review of Environmental Morphine Identifications: Worldwide Occurrences and Responses of Authorities" (2005). Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications. 90.