Opium poppies grow wild worldwide, and testing for morphine is now highly sensitive. Currently, many authorities worldwide do not pursue urinary morphine concentrations of less than 100 ng /ml. This is because such low urinary morphine concentrations are likely to be environmental morphine identifications (EMIs) and are also unlikely to be associated with pharmacological responses.

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date


Notes/Citation Information

This article was published as 358 in the Equine Pharmacology, Therapeutics, and Toxicology Program at the Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center and Department of Veterinary Science at the University of Kentucky. This article was also published as Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Article 05- 14-035 with the approval of the Dean and the Director of the College of Agriculture and the Kentucky Agricultural Experimental Station.

Funding Information

This study was supported by the following Horsemen’s Benevolent and Protective Associations: Alabama; Arizona; Arkansas; Canada; Charles Town, West Virginia; Florida; Kentucky; Iowa; Louisiana; Michigan; Minnesota; National; Nebraska; Ohio; Oklahoma; Ontario, Canada; Oregon; Pennsylvania; Tampa Bay Downs; Texas; Washington State; and West Virginia.