BACKGROUND: Nabidae, a family of predatory heteropterans, includes two subfamilies and five tribes. We previously reported the complete mitogenome of Alloeorhynchus bakeri, a representative of the tribe Prostemmatini in the subfamily Prostemmatinae. To gain a better understanding of architecture and evolution of mitogenome in Nabidae, mitogenomes of five species representing two tribes (Gorpini and Nabini) in the subfamily Nabinae were sequenced, and a comparative mitogenomic analysis of three nabid tribes in two subfamilies was carried out.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nabid mitogenomes share a similar nucleotide composition and base bias, except for the control region, where differences are observed at the subfamily level. In addition, the pattern of codon usage is influenced by the GC content and consistent with the standard invertebrate mitochondrial genetic code and the preference for A+T-rich codons. The comparison among orthologous protein-coding genes shows that different genes have been subject to different rates of molecular evolution correlated with the GC content. The stems and anticodon loops of tRNAs are extremely conserved, and the nucleotide substitutions are largely restricted to TψC and DHU loops and extra arms, with insertion-deletion polymorphisms. Comparative analysis shows similar rates of substitution between the two rRNAs. Long non-coding regions are observed in most Gorpini and Nabini mtDNAs in-between trnI-trnQ and/or trnS2-nad1. The lone exception, Nabis apicalis, however, has lost three tRNAs. Overall, phylogenetic analysis using mitogenomic data is consistent with phylogenies constructed mainly form morphological traits.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This comparative mitogenomic analysis sheds light on the architecture and evolution of mitogenomes in the family Nabidae. Nucleotide diversity and mitogenomic traits are phylogenetically informative at subfamily level. Furthermore, inclusion of a broader range of samples representing various taxonomic levels is critical for the understanding of mitogenomic evolution in damsel bugs.

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Published in PLoS One, v. 7, no. 9, 45925.

© Li et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Figure_S1.tif (1092 kB)
Nucleotide composition of six nabid mitogenomes

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Codon distribution in six nabid mtDNAs

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Inferred secondary structure of tRNA families in six nabid mtDNAs

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Alignment of tRNA families (trnA-trnL1) in six nabid mtDNAs

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Alignment of tRNA families (trnL2-trnV) in six nabid mtDNAs

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Nucleotide variation in six nabid mitochondrial rRNAs

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Mapping various traits onto the phylogenetic tree of six damsel bugs

Table_S1.doc (71 kB)
Structural features of six nabid mitogenomes

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Codon distribution in six nabid mtDNAs

Table_S3.doc (33 kB)
Evolutionary rates of six nabid mitochondrial PCGs

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Statistics on NC sequences in six nabid mitogenomes

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Occurrence of tandem repetitions in six nabid mtDNA NC regions

Table_S6.doc (30 kB)
Information of five sequenced nabid species included in the present study

Table_S7.doc (50 kB)
Primer sequences used in this study