Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation


Agriculture, Food and Environment



First Advisor

Dr. Kenneth F Haynes


Populations of Cimex lectularius, the bed bug, have resurged around the world posing significant challenges for pest management professionals and causing physical, economic, and emotional strife. Pyrethroid resistance has been found in the vast majority of populations making pest management more difficult. The objectives of my dissertation research were to document the evolution of resistance to pyrethroid and neonicotinoid combination products (called combination products here) and to a neonicotinoid in the laboratory, to record potential fitness costs to resistance to the combination products, and to compare the efficacy of nine insecticides on six populations. In the laboratory, populations of bed bugs evolve resistance rapidly to a combination product and that resistance translates into cross resistance to another combination product. In a follow up experiment, resistance to a neonicotinoid occurred after three generations of selection. Cross resistance between neonicotinoid and pyrethroid resistance was also found, likely due to a common detoxification mechanism (cytochrome P450 mediated metabolism). Resistance was associated with life history costs in three populations that had been selected with a combination product. Therefore, in the absence of selection pressure, populations of bed bugs should revert towards increasing susceptibility. Two pyrethroid products and three combination products were effective at killing three populations of bed bugs but were relatively ineffective against three other populations. However, the combination product, Transport GHP®, the single action pyrrole product, Phantom SC®, and the single action desiccant, CimeXa®, killed 95 to 100% of all populations investigated over a 14-day exposure. Taken together, results reported in this dissertation suggest that insecticide resistance management may be a useful tool for extending the efficacy of insecticides for control of C. lectularius.