Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation




Early Childhood, Special Education, and Rehabilitation Counseling

First Advisor

Dr. Brian A. Bottge

Second Advisor

Dr. Victoria F. Knight


Student performance in the area of mathematics is a topic of national concern in the United States, with several reports documenting the need for effective instruction to boost student achievement. However, what type of math instruction will most effectively raise student achievement for students with disabilities (SWD) remains a matter of debate. Problem-based learning (PBL) is a promising methodology for engaging and motivating students’ learning while increasing their math skills. Enhanced Anchored Instruction (EAI) is a form of problem-based learning, rooted in a constructivist framework, which guides students through complex problems through video anchors and context rich environments that has been shown to significantly improve math performance of SWD. Assessing student performance during PBL units is often difficult. Formative assessments supplement curriculum by allowing teachers to gather information and assess student learning during the course of instruction. However, despite the rise in formative assessment use, the effects of formative assessment in PBL curricula are rarely addressed. This study examined the effect of embedding formative assessments in the EAI curriculum on academic outcomes in middle school math classrooms. Results showed that problem solving performance did not improve with the addition of formative assessment and gains on computation performance were mixed.