Author ORCID Identifier

Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation




STEM Education

First Advisor

Dr. Molly Fisher


Technology within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) classrooms has been a topic of discussion for decades (Reiser, 2001, 2007). With the inclusion of more technologies or digital tools in the classroom has pushed classes towards a blended learning or flipped classroom approach (Atkins 2015; Tayebinik & Puteh, 2013; Williams et al., 2008). One such digital tool that has started gaining traction in the STEM classroom is the interactive video (M. K. Seery, 2013; Smith, 2013). Interactive videos allow students to watch the general lecture material outside of class and work through problems during normal class time (M. K. Seery, 2013; Smith, 2013; Stieff et al., 2018). Although flipped classrooms and interactive videos have been investigated before (Ratnaningtyas et al., 2020; M. K. Seery, 2013; Smith, 2013), most of these involve smaller lecture classes or laboratory classes. The current research investigating the perceptions of these tools mainly falls to the faculty and students who use it (Copeland, 2021; Keengwe et al., 2008; Mali & Lim, 2021). This research study attempted to investigate the gaps in the current literature. This research used an embedded convergent mixed method to investigate the perceptions and usage of the interactive video platform PlayPosit in a undergraduate General Chemistry I course. An embedded convergent mixed methods approach allows for quantitative and qualitative data to collected and analyzed concurrently and one set of data (the quantitative data in this research) is embedded within the other data to help answer the research questions (Yu & Khazanchi, 2017). The qualitative in this research involved semi-structured interviews with faculty and teaching assistants (TAs) of the General Chemistry I (CHE 105) course about their perceptions and usage of the PlayPosit platform. The quantitative data involved student surveys utilizing the technology acceptance model (Davis, 1989; Lee et al., 2013; Park, 2009) and PlayPosit analytical information. Open-ended responses were also included in the student surveys to gain qualitative data from the students. Analysis of the data followed the Activity Theory theoretical framework that was originally based on Vygotsky’s activity theory (Mwanza, 2001; Vygotsky, 1978). In the original theoretical framework, Vygotsky posited that learnings are not isolated in their learning and that they are part of a larger activity in their learning journey (Vygotsky, 1978). This theory evolved to encompass many other areas that play a role in a learner’s (also referred to as subject) journey; these include the subject, mediating tool, community, division of labor, rules, and object(ive) (Mwanza, 2001; Scanlon & Issroff, 2005). For both sets of interviews, there was an overall community among themselves, no larger set of rules that they had to follow, and faculty and TAs saw themselves as facilitators of knowledge. Some other themes emerged during the interviews and these included student buy-in, student engagement, and student learning. For a majority of the interviews, the responsibility of learning was put on the students and the faculty and TAs were to help facilitate that whether it actually occurred or not. Student responses saw the general value of PlayPosit, but the time and energy they needed to do the PlayPosits had them generally disliking the platform. Quantitative data in the form of student surveys saw that the perceptions of PlayPosit saw a general decrease over the semester independent of gender, major, or previous PlayPosit use. Utilizing the technology acceptance model showed that there was a positive correlation (albeit small one) between the different constructs (integration, ease of use, effect on learning, attitude, engagement, and perceived usefulness) and behavioral intention, which is a large indicator of actual usage. Looking at actual PlayPosit usage, the average number of videos watched and completed showed that students were not completing the videos. Correlations did show that there was a positive association between PlayPosit grade and final grade. While new answers in the research were obtained through this research, no study is without its limitations. In this study, the student response rate especially in the post-semester survey was low, so paired data was not able to be investigated. Further studies could investigate more in-depth the role interactive videos have in the classroom, especially in larger classes like CHE 105. This study was able to give insight into how the perceptions of the interactive video platform PlayPosit by faculty, TAs, and students affect its usage.

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