Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation




Education Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Justin Bathon


American schools have increasingly adopted technology resources to fulfill their educational obligations. These tools are for instruction, communication, and storing and analyzing student information. Student data can be directory information, enrollment records, achievement data, and student-created products. This increased utilization began with the passage of No Child Left Behind in 2001, and the COVID-19 pandemic led to more educational technology use of student data. Districts turned to third-party vendors for assistance with data systems and virtual learning resources. Before, during, and after the pandemic, stakeholders were concerned about information security and the students' privacy. School leaders looked to federal regulations to ensure appropriate and legal practices for student data use. The Family and Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) was implemented in 1974, and the growth of educational technology and digitization of student information has moved beyond the original guidance of the regulation. District leaders also looked to state laws, but Wisconsin statutes provide little guidance. These leaders rely on their local board policies to ensure they benefit from educational technology while protecting the privacy of their students. I utilized the methodological approach of document analysis and the contextual integrity privacy framework to understand how Wisconsin districts address student data privacy in local board policies. In addition, I examined how federal regulations are addressed and the role of leadership in policy implementation. Findings from this study indicate differences for districts using a policy consultation service. These policies address federal regulations and account for the use of data by modern educational technology. The leadership activities required for student data privacy align with previous research for effective educational leadership. These findings show the need for local policies to address federal regulations for student privacy in the context of educational technology utilization.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)