Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation




Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor

Dr. Joan Mazur


According to the literature on student achievement, the classroom teacher and effective feedback are two of the most influential factors that affect students’ performance (Hattie and Timperley, 2007). Teacher feedback is an effective and efficient instructional strategy that can bridge the gap between a student’s actual level of understanding and the level required to become independently successful. There are multiple types and levels of feedback that teachers may employ to support students’ work. It is important that a teacher utilizes various levels of feedback, particularly levels that pertain to the task (FT), the process (FP), and student regulation (FR) skills to further student academic progress. The teacher and student interact in a two-way dialogue loop that furthers the student toward writing proficiency. According to Hattie and Timperley (2007) the most effective feedback occurs when students simultaneously receive information e students to use internal assists (FR) and end the loop with another (FT) comment.

This instrumental case study focused on how a group of military-connected 2nd grade students negotiated the various kinds of feedback that were provided to them as part of the Student-Led Conferencing activities in their second-grade writing classes. Among the case research questions, I examined were: What types of feedback are used and for what instructional purposes? How do students respond to and /or use this feedback? What are the implications for Student-Led Conferencing for both the student participants and their teachers who use feedback to guide them in preparing for SLCs? In addition to the second-grade writing teacher, the participants in the study consisted of five military-connected students from a rural area in a southeastern state located adjacent to a large military installation.

The results of this study demonstrate the importance of a teacher’s awareness of the different levels of feedback (FT, FP, FR, FS) and when to use each type strategically to support a student's ability to write independently at a proficient level. Findings showed multiple examples of the teacher’s use of the various levels of feedback over different writing content lessons and in various types of interactions with students that improved their SLC products. The case analysis also identified several processes that describe how these young students negotiate feedback. These processes involved collaborating, consulting and conferring within conversations with the teacher and other students.

The implications for the findings from this study inform specific teacher knowledge on the use and effects of feedback on student progress in the Student-Led conferencing context. The results may also be used to provide direction for districts to provide professional development to instruct teachers how to effectively use the four levels of teacher feedback. Strategically deployed feedback fostered student progress and prepared students to share their achievement during a Student-Led Conference.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)