Year of Publication


Degree Name

Master of Science in Electrical Engineering (MSEE)

Document Type

Master's Thesis




Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Robert J. Adams

Second Advisor

Dr. John Young


Many systems designed by electrical & computer engineers rely on electromagnetic (EM) signals to transmit, receive, and extract either information or energy. In many cases, these systems are large and complex. Their accurate, cost-effective design requires high-fidelity computer modeling of the underlying EM field/material interaction problem in order to find a design with acceptable system performance. This modeling is accomplished by projecting the governing Maxwell equations onto finite dimensional subspaces, which results in a large matrix equation representation (Zx = b) of the EM problem. In the case of integral equation-based formulations of EM problems, the M-by-N system matrix, Z, is generally dense. For this reason, when treating large problems, it is necessary to use compression methods to store and manipulate Z. One such sparse representation is provided by so-called H^2 matrices. At low-to-moderate frequencies, H^2 matrices provide a controllably accurate data-sparse representation of Z.

The scale at which problems in EM are considered ``large'' is continuously being redefined to be larger. This growth of problem scale is not only happening in EM, but respectively across all other sub-fields of computational science as well. The pursuit of increasingly large problems is unwavering in all these sub-fields, and this drive has long outpaced the rate of advancements in processing and storage capabilities in computing. This has caused computational science communities to now face the computational limitations of standard linear algebraic methods that have been relied upon for decades to run quickly and efficiently on modern computing hardware. This common set of algorithms can only produce reliable results quickly and efficiently for small to mid-sized matrices that fit into the memory of the host computer. Therefore, the drive to pursue larger problems has even began to outpace the reasonable capabilities of these common numerical algorithms; the deterministic numerical linear algebra algorithms that have gotten matrix computation this far have proven to be inadequate for many problems of current interest. This has computational science communities focusing on improvements in their mathematical and software approaches in order to push further advancement. Randomized numerical linear algebra (RandNLA) is an emerging area that both academia and industry believe to be strong candidates to assist in overcoming the limitations faced when solving massive and computationally expensive problems.

This thesis presents results of recent work that uses a random sampling method (RSM) to implement algebraic operations involving multiple H^2 matrices. Significantly, this work is done in a manner that is non-invasive to an existing H^2 code base for filling and factoring H^2 matrices. The work presented thus expands the existing code's capabilities with minimal impact on existing (and well-tested) applications. In addition to this work with randomized H^2 algebra, improvements in sparse factorization methods for the compressed H^2 data structure will also be presented. The reported developments in filling and factoring H^2 data structures assist in, and allow for, the further pursuit of large and complex problems in computational EM (CEM) within simulation code bases that utilize the H^2 data structure.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Funding Information

Research supported by NASA Kentucky (2019)