Author ORCID Identifier


Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice

Committee Chair

Dr. Leslie K. Scott

Clinical Mentor

Dr. Angela Grubbs

Committee Member

Dr. Holly Chitwood


PURPOSE: By the time a child enters kindergarten, they may have faced as many as thirty-three vaccine-related injections. Throughout these experiences, parents and patients associated pain and fear regarding the administration of multiple vaccines concurrently to a child has played a role in vaccine hesitancy and refusal. Parents and patients experience associated fear and pain regarding the administration of multiple concurrent scheduled vaccines, thus leading to vaccination hesitancy and refusal. In addition to scheduled immunizations, there is also the possibility of unexpected needle-based procedures taking place when emergencies arise. The purpose of the study is to explore the current level of knowledge and understanding for medical professionals including nurses and medical assistants surrounding pediatric pain during needle-based procedures such as obtaining intravenous access or administering intramuscular injections.

METHODS: This study will use a quasi-experimental, pre-test/post-test design. With this, a pretest module was sent out to all medical professionals in the emergency department setting who administer vaccinations, this will include nurses, medical assistants, and unlicensed personnel via email. Following the completion of this pretest, a learning tool was attached on understanding distraction devices and how they relate to pediatric pain. Two weeks following receiving the learning module, a post-test was sent out to participants to evaluate the knowledge and intent to use distraction devices. Lastly, an analysis the data was complete to determine the knowledge, behavior, and intent to use distraction devices within this setting.

RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain did not improve with the use of the educational tool. There was little room for improvement within the baseline group, and limitations were caused by the anonymous nature of the pre/post-test. However, all participants reported increased intent to use these devices in the future.

CONCLUSION: Knowledge and attitudes of pediatric pain must be explored in all areas of pediatric care, emergency department situations, or pediatric specialty clinics. To further create better experiences during needle-based procedures, pediatric patients should be offered distraction tools and devices to lower their pain perception and improve their healthcare experience.