Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation


Agriculture, Food and Environment


Animal and Food Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Youling Xiong


This study investigated the feasibility of oxidative modification with glucose oxidase (GluOx) to enhance the rheological and gelling properties of myofibrillar protein. Differential oxidative modifications of myofibrillar protein (MP) by hydroxyl radicals generated in an enzymatic system with glucose oxidase (GluOx) in the presence of glucose/FeSO4 compared to a Fenton system (H2O2/FeSO4) were investigated. Firmer and more elastic MP gels were produced by the GluOx-oxidizing system than by the Fenton system at comparable H2O2 levels due to an altered radical reaction pathway.

The study further explored the effect of GluOx-mediated oxidation on the efficacy of transglutaminase (TGase) cross-linking of MP in 0.6 M NaCl and the rheological properties of GluOx oxidation/TGase treated MP in MP–lipid emulsion composite gels. The GluOx-mediated oxidation promoted the formation of both soluble and insoluble protein aggregates via disulfide bonds and occlusions of hydrophobic groups. The subsequent TGase treatment converted protein aggregates into highly cross-linked polymers. MP–lipid emulsion composite gels formed with such polymers exhibited markedly enhanced gelling capacity: up to a 4.4-fold increase in gel firmness and a 3.5-fold increase in gel elasticity over untreated protein. Microstructural examination showed small oil droplets dispersed in a densely packed gel matrix when MP was oxidatively modified, and the TGase treatment further contributed to such packing.

Comparison of the modification of MP via GluOx oxidation/TGase cross-linking pathway under different salt concentrations (0.3 and 0.6 M NaCl) showed different patterns of MP cross-linking, resulting in different extents of aggregation. Under low-salt condition (0.3 M NaCl), the GluOx/TGase treatment increased the gel strength to the same level as those treated with TGase in 0.6 M NaCl, suggesting a potential application of GluOx/TGase for improving gel strength in low ionic strength conditions.

Finally, the application of GluOx oxidation in the development of emulsion-type sausages was studied. The GluOx oxidation/TGase cross-linking improved the textural properties (firmness, chewiness, and rupture force) of emulsion-type sausages under both salt levels (P < 0.05). Under low-salt condition (1.5% NaCl), GluOx/TGase treatment can increase the sausage binding strength to the same level as the control sample under high-salt condition (3% NaCl). The GluOx oxidation/TGase treatment shows promise to improve the textural properties of emulsified meat products. However, the significant decrease of a* value and increase of b* value indicated GluOx-induced color deterioration.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)