Year of Publication

2013

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation

College

Agriculture, Food and Environment

Department

Animal and Food Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Youling L. Xiong

Abstract

This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin (SK) packaging systems during retail display 2–4 °C for up to 14, 7, and 21 d, respectively. Broilers were fed a diet either with a low-oxidized oil (peroxide vale POV 23 meq O2/kg) or with a high-oxidized oil (POV 121 meq O2/kg), supplemented with an antioxidant pack (200 ppm EconomasE and organic minerals Se, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe as in Bioplex) in substitution for vitamin E and inorganic minerals for 42 d.

In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation and protein oxidation were inhibited by up to 65% with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared to diets without antioxidant supplements. Antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with control diets, regardless of oil quality.

Meat samples from the antioxidant-supplemented group, irrespective of oil quality, has less purge and cooking loss compared to control diets. In all packaging systems, meat shear force was higher (P < 0.05) for broilers fed high-oxidized diets than the low-oxidized groups. Comparison between muscle types (breast as white vs. thigh as red) showed a similar trend in muscle susceptibility to oxidized oil in the diet but greater protection of antioxidant supplements for thigh meat in both physiochemical and textural properties.

Dietary regimen influenced protein expression in broiler breast meat. Three protein spots from 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, identified by mass spectrometry as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and heat shock protein beta-1 were over-abundant in muscle from low-oxidized diets. The differential proteomes that suggested down regulation of the genes encoding antioxidative proteins upon feeding oxidized oil may be implicated in the broiler meat quality deterioration during storage.

In summary, feeding diets with poor oil quality increased the vulnerability of lipids and proteins to oxidation in broiler breast and thigh meat during refrigerated and / or frozen storage in various packaging conditions, yet these effects were alleviated upon dietary supplementation with antioxidants.

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