Effects of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) have been investigated in human leukemia cells (U937, Jurkat, and HL-60) as well as in primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in relation to apoptosis and cell signaling events. Exposure of cells to PEITC resulted in pronounced increase in the activation of caspase-3, -8, -9, cleavage/degradation of PARP, and apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners. These events were accompanied by the caspase-independent downregulation of Mcl-1, inactivation of Akt, as well as activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Inhibition of PI3K/Akt by LY294002 significantly enhanced PEITC-induced apoptosis. Conversely, enforced activation of Akt by a constitutively active Akt construct markedly abrogated PEITC-mediated JNK activation, Mcl-1 downregulation, caspase activation, and apoptosis, and also interruption of the JNK pathway by pharmacological or genetically (e.g., siRNA) attenuated PEITC-induced apoptosis. Finally, administration of PEITC markedly inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in U937 xenograft model in association with inactivation of Akt, activation of JNK, as well as downregulation of Mcl-1. Taken together, these findings represent a novel mechanism by which agents targeting Akt/JNK/Mcl-1 pathway potentiate PEITC lethality in transformed and primary human leukemia cells and inhibitory activity of tumor growth of U937 xenograft model.

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Published in Cell Death and Disease, v. 2, e140, p. 1-9.

Cell Death and Disease is an open-access journal published by Nature Publishing Group. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivative Works 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

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