Rural & Underserved Health Research Center Publications


Overview of Key Findings

  • In 2014, the overall mean vaccination rate in urban areas was 4.66 compared to a mean vaccination rate of 2.81 in rural areas, indicating a 40% lower mean vaccination rate in rural communities.
  • The majority of pneumococcal vaccine services delivered to fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries were provided by primary care providers, although pharmacy providers delivered close to one-fourth (22.2%) of these services.
  • The proportion of pneumococcal vaccine services delivered by pharmacy providers was significantly greater in rural versus urban counties (29.4% vs. 21.1%).
  • Consistent with previous literature, county characteristics positively associated with pneumococcal vaccine service delivery include increasing age of residents, more female residents, and availability of inpatient hospital services, while rurality, poverty, and greater overall health status were negatively associated with delivery of pneumococcal vaccine services.

Publication Date


Notes/Citation Information

© 2018 Rural & Underserved Health Research Center, University of Kentucky

The information, conclusions and opinions expressed in this document are those of the authors and no endorsement by FORHP, HRSA, HHS, or the University of Kentucky is intended or should be inferred.

Funding Information

This project was supported by the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy (FORHP), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under cooperative agreement # U1CRH30041.