PURPOSE: To demonstrate fast treatment planning feasibility of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for centrally located lung tumors on Halcyon Linac via a previously validated knowledge-based planning (KBP) model to support offline adaptive radiotherapy.

MATERIALS/METHODS: Twenty previously treated non-coplanar volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) lung SBRT plans (c-Truebeam) on SBRT-dedicated C-arm Truebeam Linac were selected. Patients received 50 Gy in five fractions. c-Truebeam plans were re-optimized for Halcyon manually (m-Halcyon) and with KBP model (k-Halcyon). Both m-Halcyon and k-Halcyon plans were normalized for identical or better target coverage than clinical c-Truebeam plans and compared for target conformity, dose heterogeneity, dose fall-off, and dose tolerances to the organs-at-risk (OAR). Treatment delivery parameters and planning times were evaluated.

RESULTS: k-Halcyon plans were dosimetrically similar or better than m-Halcyon and c-Truebeam plans. k-Halcyon and m-Halcyon plan comparisons are presented with respect to c-Truebeam. Differences in conformity index were statistically insignificant in k-Halcyon and on average 0.02 higher (p = 0.04) in m-Halcyon plans. Gradient index was on average 0.43 (p = 0.006) lower and 0.27 (p = 0.02) higher for k-Halcyon and m-Halcyon, respectively. Maximal dose 2 cm away in any direction from target was statistically insignificant. k-Halcyon increased maximal target dose on average by 2.9 Gy (p < 0.001). Mean lung dose was on average reduced by 0.10 Gy (p = 0.004) in k-Halcyon and increased by 0.14 Gy (p < 0.001) in m-Halcyon plans. k-Halcyon plans lowered bronchial tree dose on average by 1.2 Gy. Beam-on-time (BOT) was increased by 2.85 and 1.67 min, on average for k-Halcyon and m-Halcyon, respectively. k-Halcyon plans were generated in under 30 min compared to estimated dedicated 180 ± 30 min for m-Halcyon or c-Truebeam plan.

CONCLUSION: k-Halcyon plans were generated in under 30 min with excellent plan quality. This adaptable KBP model supports high-volume clinics in the expansion or transfer of lung SBRT patients to Halcyon.

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Published in Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, v. 22, issue 11.

© 2021 The Authors

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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