Introduction: Epidemiologic data indicate diabetes confers an augmented risk of lung cancer development, yet the relationship between hyperglycemia, metabolic agents, and prognosis is unclear. We analyzed the impact of hyperglycemia, anti-diabetic agents, and statins on outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing chemoradiation.

Method and Materials: In total, data from 170 patients with stage III NSCLC treated at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between 2001 and 2014 were obtained for analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate time-to-event for overall survival (OS), disease-free survival, distant metastasis (DM), and loco-regional control (LRC). Blood glucose values (n = 2870), statins, and diabetic medications were assessed both continuously and categorically in univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate hazard ratios and identify prognostic factors.

Results: Tumor volume was a negative prognostic factor for OS, disease-free survival, DM, and LRC (p = 0.001). Tumor stage and treatment time were associated with increased all-cause mortality. Any glucose measurement ≥ 130 mg/dl during treatment (2-year estimate 49.9 vs. 65.8%, p = 0.095) was borderline significant for decreased LRC, with similar trends on multivariable analysis (HR 1.636, p = 0.126) and for OS (HR 1.476, p = 0.130). Statin usage was associated with improved 2-year LRC (53.4 vs. 62.4%, p = 0.088) but not with improvements in survival. Other glycemic parameters, comorbid diabetes diagnosis, or anti-diabetic medications were not significantly associated with outcomes.

Conclusions: There were trends for blood glucose value over 130 mg/dl and statin nonuse being associated with inferior prognosis for LRC in stage III NSCLC patients; glycemic state, statin usage, and glucose-modulating medications were not associated with survival outcomes in multivariable analysis in this retrospective database.

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Published in Frontiers in Oncology, v. 8, article 281, p. 1-9.

Copyright © 2018 Iarrobino, Gill, Bernard, Klement, Werner-Wasik and Champ

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Health grant award number T35DK065521.