Author ORCID Identifier

Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Document Type

Master's Thesis


Arts and Sciences



First Advisor

Dr. Thomas A. Widiger


It has been posited that extremely high or extremely low levels of any personality trait in the Five Factor Model of Personality can be maladaptive. However, the Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD) in Section III of the DSM-5 is composed almost exclusively of unipolar maladaptive traits. The lack of maladaptively low neuroticism and high extraversion fails to fully cover psychopathy; the lack of maladaptively high extraversion fails to cover histrionic personality disorder (HPD); the lack of maladaptively high agreeableness fails to cover dependent personality disorder (DPD); and the lack of maladaptively high conscientiousness fails to cover obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). The goal of the present study was to discern whether Five Factor Model Personality Disorder (FFMPD) scales demonstrate incremental validity over the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in capturing variance in symptom measures of each of these personality disorders. A combined sample of N = 733 completed an online questionnaire battery that included the PID-5 and FFMPD scales for psychopathy, HPD, DPD, and OCPD, along with symptom measures for each of these conditions. A series of hierarchical regression models was conducted in which each symptom measure was regressed on the PID-5 (entered in Step 1) and the corresponding FFMPD measure (entered in Step 2). Results suggest that adding the FFMPD measure to the models accounted for significantly more variance in its corresponding symptom measure than the PID-5 alone. Taken together, these results suggest that maladaptive variants of personality traits that are often considered healthy (e.g., high extraversion, low neuroticism) confer important information about personality disorder symptoms and functioning and should be included in the AMPD.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

Funding Information

This study was supported by Dr. Thomas A. Widiger.