Author ORCID Identifier

Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation


Arts and Sciences



First Advisor

Dr. Thomas A. Widiger


The Alternative Model of Personality Disorder (AMPD) was introduced in Section III (“Emerging Measures and Models”) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to address many of the challenges inherent to the categorical system of personality disorder diagnosis. According to the AMPD, personality disorders can be identified by the extent to which impairment in personality functioning (i.e., Criterion A) and pathological personality traits (Criterion B) are present. Researchers have divided over the distinction between Criterion A and Criterion B, with one side favoring the current AMPD conceptualization of personality traits and functioning as independent constructs and the other arguing that it is impossible to completely parse out personality traits from their subsequent impairment. The substantial body of research published on the AMPD is similarly split, providing inconsistent evidence for both sides. In an attempt to clarify the contentious relationship between Criterion A and Criterion B, self-monitoring (i.e., the extent to which individuals are able and willing to use situational cues of social appropriateness to guide expressive behaviors and self-presentation) was considered as a potential moderating variable. That is, the current study examined whether the magnitude of the relationship between Criterion A and Criterion B would depend on self-monitoring. It was hypothesized that the strength of the association between pathological personality traits (Criterion B) and impairment (Criterion A) would be greater when self-monitoring skills were low and weaker when self-monitoring skills were high such that the ability to modify expressive behaviors to align with situational demands would mitigate the impairments in functioning that result from more extreme personality traits. These analyses yielded nonsignificant interactions, which suggest that self-monitoring skills do not moderate the association between personality traits and personality impairment. The implications of integrating social psychology constructs into clinical psychology research are discussed.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)