Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)

Document Type

Master's Thesis


Arts and Sciences



First Advisor

Dr. Rachel H. Farr


Utilizing a sample of lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent families with school-age children, results suggested that parents engage in adoption communication less but racial-ethnic socialization more when a child is transracially adopted. No differences were found in lesbian and gay parents socialization practices for adoptive or racial-ethnic identity. Further, lesbian and gay parents engaged in sexual minority parent socialization less than adoptive or racial-ethnic socialization. Children’s self-worth was related to sex but not socialization practices such that girls reported lower self-worth, and no significant associations were present for children’s closeness. Children’s age, sex, and transracial adoptive status were predictive of their understanding of adoption and only children’s age was predictive of their recognition of sexual minority parent socialization. Children’s sex and transracial adoptive status as predictors of understanding of adoption have not yet been reported on in the literature. Further, no work has reported on associations between parent and child socialization practices in the context of sexual minority parent socialization. The implications of differences emerging in parent socialization frequency (i.e., racial-ethnic communication higher than adoptive communicative openness), as well as how children’s sex and transracial adoptive status contribute to children’s understanding of adoption will be discussed.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)