Author ORCID Identifier

Date Available


Year of Publication


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Document Type

Master's Thesis


Arts and Sciences



First Advisor

Dr. David T. R. Berry


One obstacle to the accurate diagnosis of ADHD in college students is malingering, although many symptom self-report measures do not contain feigning validity scales. The Infrequency Index (CII) for the Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale–Self-Report: Long Version (CAARS-S:L) was developed for this purpose, although further validation of the index is needed. Another topic of interest in ADHD malingering research is the increasing use of online assessments. Little is known about how ADHD is malingered in an online format, particularly on the CAARS-S:L. The current study aims to integrate these strands of research by examining the utility of the CII in detecting feigning and the effect of administration format on CAARS-S:L profiles. Data from 139 (27 diagnosed with ADHD, 46 without ADHD responding honestly, and 66 without ADHD instructed to feign) students were analyzed. Seventy-five completed the CAARS-S:L on paper, and 64 completed the assessment online. The clinical and feigning groups produced statistically similar elevations on seven of eight CAARS-S:L clinical scales. Administration format did not have a significant effect on the clinical scales or CII. The CII demonstrated 36% sensitivity and 85% specificity at the recommended cut score across administration formats. Specificity reached desirable levels at raised cut scores.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)