OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that commonly administered pediatric oral medications are a significant source of toxic elements. The concentrations of 16 elements were determined in 14 frequently used pediatric oral medications.
METHODS: Samples were prepared for analysis by dilution or nitric acid microwave-assisted digestion and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The intake of each element from administration for 1 week of the medication's maximum recommended daily dose to 6-month-olds was calculated and compared to an exposure guideline for that element. Exposure guidelines used for adverse effects were minimal risk levels, oral reference dose, permissible or permitted daily exposure, provisional tolerable weekly intake, and tolerable upper intake concentrations. Exposure guidelines utilized for desired effect were adequate intake and recommended dietary allowance.
RESULTS: Intake of the maximum recommended daily dose by 6-month-olds for 1 week would not deliver more than the exposure guideline of any of the elements, with the exceptions of chromium in several medications and zinc in the pediatric electrolyte solution, if it was consumed for 1 week.
CONCLUSIONS: Consumed alone, these frequently administered pediatric oral medications would not deliver amounts of toxic elements that exceed established exposure guidelines for adverse effects, nor would most significantly contribute to adequate intake of essential elements.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Robert A. Yokel has access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Yokel, Robert A.; Seger, Sarah E.; and Unrine, Jason M., "Toxic and Essential Trace Element Content of Commonly Administered Pediatric Oral Medications" (2017). Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications. 114.