Background: To examine factors predicting type of bladder antimuscarinics (BAM) initiated in nursing home (NH) residents.

Methods: Incident BAM initiators following NH admission were identified by constructing a retrospective cohort from Medicare files and Minimum Data Set (MDS). Participants included all residents 65 years and older admitted in Medicare-certified NH between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008 who were prescribed BAM and had continuous Medicare (Part A, B, and D) enrollment. Patient characteristics, medications, and comorbidities were derived from Medicare enrollment and claims. NH characteristics and health status were derived from MDS assessments. The outcome was defined as type of BAM initiated after admission (selective, non-selective extended release, non-selective immediate release). Multinomial logistic regression using generalized estimating equation methodology determined which factors predicted the type of BAM initiated.

Results: Twelve thousand eight hundred ninety-nine NH residents initiating BAM therapy were identified; 13.38% of new users were prescribed selective BAM, 45.56% non-selective extended release, and 41.07% non-selective immediate release medications. In both sexes, significant predictors of BAM included region of nursing home, body mass index, cognitive performance score, frailty measures, activities of daily living, and measures of bladder continence. In women, history of fracture and fall-related injuries were significant predictors of type of BAM use, while race and indicators of balance were significant predictors of type of BAM use in men. Non-pharmacological continence management strategies were not predictive of type of BAM initiation.

Conclusions: Several factors are important in predicting type of BAM initiation in both women and men, but other factors are sex-specific. Some observed factors predicting the type of BAM initiated, such as other medications use, body mass index, or provider-related factors are potentially modifiable and could be used in targeted interventions to help optimize BAM use in this population.

Trial registration: Not applicable.

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Notes/Citation Information

Published in BMC Geriatrics, v. 17, 295, p. 1-20.

© The Author(s). 2017

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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Funding Information

No external funding was utilized for the completion of this study. During the time the study was conducted, DM was supported by grant number K12 DA035150 (Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women’s Health) from the National Institutes of Health, Office of Women’s Health Research and the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Related Content

The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are available in the Medicare repositories, [claims data: https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/DataCompendium/16_2008DataCompendium.html, MDS assessment data: https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Quality-Initiatives-Patient-Assessment-Instruments/NursingHomeQualityInits/NHQIMDS20.html].

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Additional file 1: Table S1.