The incidence of breast cancer in the United States has steadily increased for the past three decades. Exposure to excess estrogen, in both natural and synthetic forms, has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of this disease. Considerable interest has been focused on organochlorines, such as the triazine herbicides, and their possible role in the initiation or promotion of human breast cancer. To explore this relationship, an ecologic study of Kentucky counties was designed. Exposure to triazines was estimated by use of water contamination data, corn crop production, and pesticide use data. A summary index of triazine herbicide exposure was developed to classify counties into low, medium, or high exposure levels. Data on county breast cancer rates were obtained from the state registry. A Poisson regression analysis was performed, controlling for age, race, age at first live birth, income, and level of education. Results revealed a statistically significant increase in breast cancer risk with medium and high levels of triazine exposure [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14,p<0.0001 and OR = 1.2, p<0.0001, respectively]. The results suggest a relationship between exposure to triazine herbicides and increased breast cancer risk, but conclusions concerning causality cannot be drawn, due to the limitations inherent in ecologic study design.
Kettles, Michele A.; Browning, Steven R.; Prince, Timothy Scott; and Horstman, Sanford W., "Triazine Herbicide Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: An Ecologic Study of Kentucky Counties" (1997). Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health Faculty Publications. 25.