We provide detailed comparison between the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code ENZO-2.4 and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)/N-body code GADGET-3 in the context of isolated or cosmological direct baryonic collapse within dark matter (DM) haloes to form supermassive black holes. Gas flow is examined by following evolution of basic parameters of accretion flows. Both codes show an overall agreement in the general features of the collapse; however, many subtle differences exist. For isolated models, the codes increase their spatial and mass resolutions at different pace, which leads to substantially earlier collapse in SPH than in AMR cases due to higher gravitational resolution in GADGET-3. In cosmological runs, the AMR develops a slightly higher baryonic resolution than SPH during halo growth via cold accretion permeated by mergers. Still, both codes agree in the build-up of DM and baryonic structures. However, with the onset of collapse, this difference in mass and spatial resolution is amplified, so evolution of SPH models begins to lag behind. Such a delay can have effect on formation/destruction rate of H2 due to UV background, and on basic properties of host haloes. Finally, isolated non-cosmological models in spinning haloes, with spin parameter λ ∼ 0.01–0.07, show delayed collapse for greater λ, but pace of this increase is faster for AMR. Within our simulation set-up, GADGET-3 requires significantly larger computational resources than ENZO-2.4 during collapse, and needs similar resources, during the pre-collapse, cosmological structure formation phase. Yet it benefits from substantially higher gravitational force and hydrodynamic resolutions, except at the end of collapse.
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KN acknowledges the partial support by JSPS KAKENHI grant number 26247022. IS acknowledges partial support from STScI grant AR-12639.01-A. IS and KN are grateful to the support from the International Joint Research Promotion Program at Osaka University. Support for HST/STScI AR-12639.01-A was provided by NASA through a grant from the STScI, which is operated by the AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.
Luo, Yang; Nagamine, Kentaro; and Shlosman, Isaac, "Direct Collapse to Supermassive Black Hole Seeds: Comparing the AMR and SPH Approaches" (2016). Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications. 459.